Transducer play a crucial role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to a different.
It is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is changed into an electrical energy.
Varieties of transducer:
The two main types of transducers, they may be: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Sensor is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical energy on its own. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the most useful samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical power into electrical power by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is located in some materials (such as quartz) with an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used for the structure, it produces an electrical charge and, when an electrical field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism may be known as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and thus are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are employed in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker over a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging will also be based upon piezoelectrics. In this instance, the Compression Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while decreasing the input power at the same time, i.e. the program is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are generally referred to as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is typically used to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors which are very commonly used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used combined with piezo actuators to provide position feedback or force feedback, for example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to generate a charge (energy) and they cannot convert mechanical in electrical energy and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a wonderful option for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when leading edge performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated beneath the right conditions, the newest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a wonderful option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to supply the controller the right information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the right amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be considered a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any kind of rapid actuation can cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, what this means is, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the better reactive forces it is going to cause. In the event these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system using a counter mass can be integrated and driven with a signal of the opposite phase. With a bit of fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out and also the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is usually utilized in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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